Glaucoma occurs when high pressure in the eye damages the optic nerve, causing gradual loss of vision. It is normally treated with eyedrops. If eyedrops aren’t sufficient then there are laser procedures that can help the fluid in the eye drain faster, decreasing the pressure in the eye. If that does not lower the pressure enough, there is a bypass procedure that creates an alternate path for fluid to leave the eye.
If drops and surgery is not enough to lower pressure sufficiently, a shunt can be placed in the eye. The shunt is placed at the top of the eye and a tube extends from the shunt into the anterior chamber of the eye. This procedure is reserved for those with significant, uncontrolled glaucoma and is considered a last-ditch effort to saving the eye and whatever vision is left.