The top photo shows part of a Weiss’ Ring that occurs from a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). The vitreous is like a bag of gel that fills up the eyeball. At some point in most people’s lives the bag pulls off the back of the eye, much like wallpaper falling off a wall. The patient can have symptoms of flashes of light and/or floaters. Sometimes it can pull on the retina, causing a tear, which could lead to a retina detachment and subsequent loss of vision. A PVD in and of itself is not dangerous, but the floater could bother a person enough that a retina specialist would have to do surgery to remove it.
The bottom photo is just of a very small amount of clouding of the lens of the eye. When it gets to a point that the patient loses vision, then it is considered a cataract. Of course those are easily fixed with surgery.